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  • Low-Power Hardware Implementation of a Support Vector Machine Training and Classification for Neural Seizure Detection

    Elhosary, Heba; Zakhari, Michael H.; ElGammal, Mohamed A.; Elghany, Mohamed Abd; Salama, Khaled N.; Mostafa, Hassan (IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE, 2019-10-14) [Article]
    In this paper, a low power support vector machine (SVM) training, feature extraction, and classification algorithm are hardware implemented in a neural seizure detection application. The training algorithm used is the sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm. The system is implemented on different platforms: such as field programmable gate array (FPGA), Xilinx Virtex-7 and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) using hardware-calibrated UMC 65nm CMOS technology. The implemented training hardware is introduced as an accelerator intellectual property (IP), especially in the case of large number of training sets, such as neural seizure detection. Feature extraction and classification blocks are implemented to achieve the best trade-off between sensitivity and power consumption. The proposed seizure detection system achieves a sensitivity around 96.77% when tested with the implemented linear kernel classifier. A power consumption evaluation is performed on both the ASIC and FPGA platforms showing that the ASIC power consumption is improved by a factor of 2X when compared with the FPGA counterpart.
  • Arc-discharge synthesis of nitrogen-doped C embedded TiCN nanocubes with tunable dielectric/magnetic properties for electromagnetic absorbing applications.

    Zhou, Yuanliang; Wang, Ning; Qu, Xinghao; Huang, Feirong; Duan, Yuping; Zhang, Xuefeng; Dong, Xinglong; Zhang, Zhidong (Nanoscale, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2019-10-12) [Article]
    The development of novel composites consisting of ceramic and C materials to alleviate increasingly serious electromagnetic radiation is of great significance in the microwave absorption (MA) field, considering their superior anti-oxidation/corrosion performances and good mechanical strength as well as adjustable dielectric loss capabilities. However, it is still a great challenge to broaden their effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss value ≤ -10 dB) and strengthen the absorption intensity simultaneously, which is mostly attributed to the unreliable impedance matching degree at the absorber/air interface. Herein, a feasible strategy is adopted to synthesize TiCN@N-doped C nanocubes, whose low graphitization degree provides desirable impedance matching conditions. In the meantime, masses of core/shell hetero interfaces ensure strong microwave absorption capability. Experimental results reveal that the optimal effective absorption bandwidth of the prepared TiCN@N-doped C nanocubes can reach up to 5.44 GHz with a thickness of 1.88 mm. Our work demonstrates that the TiCN@N-doped C nanocubes have potential for electromagnetic absorbing applications.
  • Comment on “A periodic grain consolidation model of porous media” [Phys. Fluids A 1, 38 (1989)]

    Khirevich, Siarhei; Patzek, Tadeusz (Physics of Fluids, AIP Publishing, 2019-10-11) [Article]
    In this document, we correct the friction coefficient values presented in Table III in a study by Larson and Higdon [“A periodic grain consolidation model of porous media,” Phys. Fluids A 1, 38 (1989)]. The authors addressed the problem of Stokes flow through periodic arrays of (non)overlapping spheres and determined the friction coefficients. It appears that the volume of the overlapping region of spheres was not taken into account, which affected the total solid concentration and systematically biased the corresponding friction coefficient values. We correct the sphere concentration and friction coefficients, and validate our approach with lattice-Boltzmann simulations. The suggested correction is valid in the case of overlapping spheres only, when the volume of the overlapping region is positive.
  • Plasmodium kinesin-8X associates with mitotic spindles and is essential for oocyst development during parasite proliferation and transmission.

    Zeeshan, Mohammad; Shilliday, Fiona; Liu, Tianyang; Abel, Steven; Mourier, Tobias; Ferguson, David J P; Rea, Edward; Stanway, Rebecca R; Roques, Magali; Williams, Desiree; Daniel, Emilie; Brady, Declan; Roberts, Anthony J; Holder, Anthony A.; Pain, Arnab; Le Roch, Karine G; Moores, Carolyn A; Tewari, Rita (PLoS pathogens, Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2019-10-11) [Article]
    Kinesin-8 proteins are microtubule motors that are often involved in regulation of mitotic spindle length and chromosome alignment. They move towards the plus ends of spindle microtubules and regulate the dynamics of these ends due, at least in some species, to their microtubule depolymerization activity. Plasmodium spp. exhibit an atypical endomitotic cell division in which chromosome condensation and spindle dynamics in the different proliferative stages are not well understood. Genome-wide shared orthology analysis of Plasmodium spp. revealed the presence of two kinesin-8 motor proteins, kinesin-8X and kinesin-8B. Here we studied the biochemical properties of kinesin-8X and its role in parasite proliferation. In vitro, kinesin-8X has motility and depolymerization activities like other kinesin-8 motors. To understand the role of Plasmodium kinesin-8X in cell division, we used fluorescence-tagging and live cell imaging to define its location, and gene targeting to analyse its function, during all proliferative stages of the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei life cycle. The results revealed a spatio-temporal involvement of kinesin-8X in spindle dynamics and an association with both mitotic and meiotic spindles and the putative microtubule organising centre (MTOC). Deletion of the kinesin-8X gene revealed a defect in oocyst development, confirmed by ultrastructural studies, suggesting that this protein is required for oocyst development and sporogony. Transcriptome analysis of Δkinesin-8X gametocytes revealed modulated expression of genes involved mainly in microtubule-based processes, chromosome organisation and the regulation of gene expression, supporting a role for kinesin-8X in cell division. Kinesin-8X is thus required for parasite proliferation within the mosquito and for transmission to the vertebrate host.
  • Adhesion to coral surface as a potential sink for marine microplastics.

    Martin, Cecilia; Corona, Elena; Mahadik, Gauri A; Duarte, Carlos M. (Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), Elsevier BV, 2019-10-11) [Article]
    Only 1% of plastic entering the ocean is found floating on its surface, with high loads in ocean accumulation zones and semi-enclosed seas, except for the Red Sea, which supports one of the lowest floating plastic loads worldwide. Given the extension of reefs in the Red Sea, we hypothesize a major role of scleractinian corals as sinks, through suspension-feeding, and assessed microplastic removal rates by three Red Sea coral species. Experimental evidence showed removal rates ranging from 0.25 × 10-3 to 14.8 × 10-3 microplastic particles polyp-1 hour-1, among species. However, this was only 2.2 ± 0.6% of the total removal rate, with passive removal through adhesion to the coral surface being 40 times higher than active removal through suspension-feeding. These results point at adhesion of plastic to coral reef structures as a major sink for microplastics suspended in the water column after sinking, helping explain low concentrations in Red Sea surface waters.

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